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main.c

/*-
 * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993, 1994
 *    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
 *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#ifndef lint
static const char copyright[] =
"@(#) Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993, 1994\n\
      The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.\n";
#endif /* not lint */

#ifndef lint
#if 0
static char sccsid[] = "@(#)main.c  8.6 (Berkeley) 5/1/95";
#endif
static const char rcsid[] =
  "$FreeBSD: src/sbin/dump/main.c,v 1.65 2006/10/12 20:22:31 ru Exp $";
#endif /* not lint */

#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/mount.h>
#include <sys/disklabel.h>

#include <ufs/ufs/dinode.h>
#include <ufs/ufs/ufsmount.h>
#include <ufs/ffs/fs.h>

#include <protocols/dumprestore.h>

#include <ctype.h>
#include <err.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <fstab.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <timeconv.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include "dump.h"
#include "pathnames.h"

int   notify = 0; /* notify operator flag */
int   snapdump = 0;     /* dumping live filesystem, so use snapshot */
int   blockswritten = 0;      /* number of blocks written on current tape */
int   tapeno = 0; /* current tape number */
int   density = 0;      /* density in bytes/0.1" " <- this is for hilit19 */
int   ntrec = NTREC;    /* # tape blocks in each tape record */
int   cartridge = 0;    /* Assume non-cartridge tape */
int   cachesize = 0;    /* block cache size (in bytes), defaults to 0 */
long  dev_bsize = 1;    /* recalculated below */
long  blocksperfile;    /* output blocks per file */
char  *host = NULL;     /* remote host (if any) */

/*
 * Possible superblock locations ordered from most to least likely.
 */
static int sblock_try[] = SBLOCKSEARCH;

static char *getmntpt(char *, int *);
static long numarg(const char *, long, long);
static void obsolete(int *, char **[]);
static void usage(void) __dead2;

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
      struct stat sb;
      ino_t ino;
      int dirty;
      union dinode *dp;
      struct fstab *dt;
      char *map, *mntpt;
      int ch, mode, mntflags;
      int i, anydirskipped, bflag = 0, Tflag = 0, honorlevel = 1;
      int just_estimate = 0;
      ino_t maxino;
      char *tmsg;

      spcl.c_date = _time_to_time64(time(NULL));

      tsize = 0;  /* Default later, based on 'c' option for cart tapes */
      dumpdates = _PATH_DUMPDATES;
      popenout = NULL;
      tape = NULL;
      temp = _PATH_DTMP;
      if (TP_BSIZE / DEV_BSIZE == 0 || TP_BSIZE % DEV_BSIZE != 0)
            quit("TP_BSIZE must be a multiple of DEV_BSIZE\n");
      level = '0';

      if (argc < 2)
            usage();

      obsolete(&argc, &argv);
      while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv,
          "0123456789aB:b:C:cD:d:f:h:LnP:Ss:T:uWw")) != -1)
            switch (ch) {
            /* dump level */
            case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
            case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9':
                  level = ch;
                  break;

            case 'a':         /* `auto-size', Write to EOM. */
                  unlimited = 1;
                  break;

            case 'B':         /* blocks per output file */
                  blocksperfile = numarg("number of blocks per file",
                      1L, 0L);
                  break;

            case 'b':         /* blocks per tape write */
                  ntrec = numarg("number of blocks per write",
                      1L, 1000L);
                  break;

            case 'C':
                  cachesize = numarg("cachesize", 0, 0) * 1024 * 1024;
                  break;

            case 'c':         /* Tape is cart. not 9-track */
                  cartridge = 1;
                  break;

            case 'D':
                  dumpdates = optarg;
                  break;

            case 'd':         /* density, in bits per inch */
                  density = numarg("density", 10L, 327670L) / 10;
                  if (density >= 625 && !bflag)
                        ntrec = HIGHDENSITYTREC;
                  break;

            case 'f':         /* output file */
                  if (popenout != NULL)
                        errx(X_STARTUP, "You cannot use the P and f "
                            "flags together.\n");
                  tape = optarg;
                  break;

            case 'h':
                  honorlevel = numarg("honor level", 0L, 10L);
                  break;

            case 'L':
                  snapdump = 1;
                  break;

            case 'n':         /* notify operators */
                  notify = 1;
                  break;

            case 'P':
                  if (tape != NULL)
                        errx(X_STARTUP, "You cannot use the P and f "
                            "flags together.\n");
                  popenout = optarg;
                  break;

            case 'S':               /* exit after estimating # of tapes */
                  just_estimate = 1;
                  break;

            case 's':         /* tape size, feet */
                  tsize = numarg("tape size", 1L, 0L) * 12 * 10;
                  break;

            case 'T':         /* time of last dump */
                  spcl.c_ddate = unctime(optarg);
                  if (spcl.c_ddate < 0) {
                        (void)fprintf(stderr, "bad time \"%s\"\n",
                            optarg);
                        exit(X_STARTUP);
                  }
                  Tflag = 1;
                  lastlevel = '?';
                  break;

            case 'u':         /* update /etc/dumpdates */
                  uflag = 1;
                  break;

            case 'W':         /* what to do */
            case 'w':
                  lastdump(ch);
                  exit(X_FINOK);    /* do nothing else */

            default:
                  usage();
            }
      argc -= optind;
      argv += optind;

      if (argc < 1) {
            (void)fprintf(stderr, "Must specify disk or file system\n");
            exit(X_STARTUP);
      }
      disk = *argv++;
      argc--;
      if (argc >= 1) {
            (void)fprintf(stderr, "Unknown arguments to dump:");
            while (argc--)
                  (void)fprintf(stderr, " %s", *argv++);
            (void)fprintf(stderr, "\n");
            exit(X_STARTUP);
      }
      if (Tflag && uflag) {
              (void)fprintf(stderr,
                "You cannot use the T and u flags together.\n");
            exit(X_STARTUP);
      }
      if (popenout) {
            tape = "child pipeline process";
      } else if (tape == NULL && (tape = getenv("TAPE")) == NULL)
            tape = _PATH_DEFTAPE;
      if (strcmp(tape, "-") == 0) {
            pipeout++;
            tape = "standard output";
      }

      if (blocksperfile)
            blocksperfile = blocksperfile / ntrec * ntrec; /* round down */
      else if (!unlimited) {
            /*
             * Determine how to default tape size and density
             *
             *          density                       tape size
             * 9-track  1600 bpi (160 bytes/.1")      2300 ft.
             * 9-track  6250 bpi (625 bytes/.1")      2300 ft.
             * cartridge      8000 bpi (100 bytes/.1")      1700 ft.
             *                                  (450*4 - slop)
             * hilit19 hits again: "
             */
            if (density == 0)
                  density = cartridge ? 100 : 160;
            if (tsize == 0)
                  tsize = cartridge ? 1700L*120L : 2300L*120L;
      }

      if (strchr(tape, ':')) {
            host = tape;
            tape = strchr(host, ':');
            *tape++ = '\0';
#ifdef RDUMP
            if (index(tape, '\n')) {
                (void)fprintf(stderr, "invalid characters in tape\n");
                exit(X_STARTUP);
            }
            if (rmthost(host) == 0)
                  exit(X_STARTUP);
#else
            (void)fprintf(stderr, "remote dump not enabled\n");
            exit(X_STARTUP);
#endif
      }
      (void)setuid(getuid()); /* rmthost() is the only reason to be setuid */

      if (signal(SIGHUP, SIG_IGN) != SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGHUP, sig);
      if (signal(SIGTRAP, SIG_IGN) != SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGTRAP, sig);
      if (signal(SIGFPE, SIG_IGN) != SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGFPE, sig);
      if (signal(SIGBUS, SIG_IGN) != SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGBUS, sig);
      if (signal(SIGSEGV, SIG_IGN) != SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGSEGV, sig);
      if (signal(SIGTERM, SIG_IGN) != SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGTERM, sig);
      if (signal(SIGINT, interrupt) == SIG_IGN)
            signal(SIGINT, SIG_IGN);

      dump_getfstab();  /* /etc/fstab snarfed */
      /*
       *    disk can be either the full special file name,
       *    the suffix of the special file name,
       *    the special name missing the leading '/',
       *    the file system name with or without the leading '/'.
       */
      dt = fstabsearch(disk);
      if (dt != NULL) {
            disk = rawname(dt->fs_spec);
            if (disk == NULL)
                  errx(X_STARTUP, "%s: unknown file system", dt->fs_spec);
            (void)strncpy(spcl.c_dev, dt->fs_spec, NAMELEN);
            (void)strncpy(spcl.c_filesys, dt->fs_file, NAMELEN);
      } else {
            (void)strncpy(spcl.c_dev, disk, NAMELEN);
            (void)strncpy(spcl.c_filesys, "an unlisted file system",
                NAMELEN);
      }
      spcl.c_dev[NAMELEN-1]='\0';
      spcl.c_filesys[NAMELEN-1]='\0';

      if ((mntpt = getmntpt(disk, &mntflags)) != 0) {
            if (mntflags & MNT_RDONLY) {
                  if (snapdump != 0) {
                        msg("WARNING: %s\n",
                            "-L ignored for read-only filesystem.");
                        snapdump = 0;
                  }
            } else if (snapdump == 0) {
                  msg("WARNING: %s\n",
                      "should use -L when dumping live read-write "
                      "filesystems!");
            } else {
                  char snapname[BUFSIZ], snapcmd[BUFSIZ];

                  snprintf(snapname, sizeof snapname, "%s/.snap", mntpt);
                  if ((stat(snapname, &sb) < 0) || !S_ISDIR(sb.st_mode)) {
                        msg("WARNING: %s %s\n",
                            "-L requested but snapshot location",
                            snapname);
                        msg("         %s: %s\n",
                            "is not a directory",
                            "dump downgraded, -L ignored");
                        snapdump = 0;
                  } else {
                        snprintf(snapname, sizeof snapname,
                            "%s/.snap/dump_snapshot", mntpt);
                        snprintf(snapcmd, sizeof snapcmd, "%s %s %s",
                            _PATH_MKSNAP_FFS, mntpt, snapname);
                        unlink(snapname);
                        if (system(snapcmd) != 0)
                              errx(X_STARTUP, "Cannot create %s: %s\n",
                                  snapname, strerror(errno));
                        if ((diskfd = open(snapname, O_RDONLY)) < 0) {
                              unlink(snapname);
                              errx(X_STARTUP, "Cannot open %s: %s\n",
                                  snapname, strerror(errno));
                        }
                        unlink(snapname);
                        if (fstat(diskfd, &sb) != 0)
                              err(X_STARTUP, "%s: stat", snapname);
                        spcl.c_date = _time_to_time64(sb.st_mtime);
                  }
            }
      } else if (snapdump != 0) {
            msg("WARNING: Cannot use -L on an unmounted filesystem.\n");
            snapdump = 0;
      }
      if (snapdump == 0) {
            if ((diskfd = open(disk, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
                  err(X_STARTUP, "Cannot open %s", disk);
            if (fstat(diskfd, &sb) != 0)
                  err(X_STARTUP, "%s: stat", disk);
            if (S_ISDIR(sb.st_mode))
                  errx(X_STARTUP, "%s: unknown file system", disk);
      }

      (void)strcpy(spcl.c_label, "none");
      (void)gethostname(spcl.c_host, NAMELEN);
      spcl.c_level = level - '0';
      spcl.c_type = TS_TAPE;

      if (spcl.c_date == 0) {
            tmsg = "the epoch\n";
      } else {
            time_t t = _time64_to_time(spcl.c_date);
            tmsg = ctime(&t);
      }
      msg("Date of this level %c dump: %s", level, tmsg);

      if (!Tflag)
              getdumptime();        /* /etc/dumpdates snarfed */
      if (spcl.c_ddate == 0) {
            tmsg = "the epoch\n";
      } else {
            time_t t = _time64_to_time(spcl.c_ddate);
            tmsg = ctime(&t);
      }
      msg("Date of last level %c dump: %s", lastlevel, tmsg);

      msg("Dumping %s%s ", snapdump ? "snapshot of ": "", disk);
      if (dt != NULL)
            msgtail("(%s) ", dt->fs_file);
      if (host)
            msgtail("to %s on host %s\n", tape, host);
      else
            msgtail("to %s\n", tape);

      sync();
      sblock = (struct fs *)sblock_buf;
      for (i = 0; sblock_try[i] != -1; i++) {
            sblock->fs_fsize = SBLOCKSIZE; /* needed in bread */
            bread(sblock_try[i] >> dev_bshift, (char *) sblock, SBLOCKSIZE);
            if ((sblock->fs_magic == FS_UFS1_MAGIC ||
                 (sblock->fs_magic == FS_UFS2_MAGIC &&
                  sblock->fs_sblockloc == sblock_try[i])) &&
                sblock->fs_bsize <= MAXBSIZE &&
                sblock->fs_bsize >= sizeof(struct fs))
                  break;
      }
      if (sblock_try[i] == -1)
            quit("Cannot find file system superblock\n");
      dev_bsize = sblock->fs_fsize / fsbtodb(sblock, 1);
      dev_bshift = ffs(dev_bsize) - 1;
      if (dev_bsize != (1 << dev_bshift))
            quit("dev_bsize (%ld) is not a power of 2", dev_bsize);
      tp_bshift = ffs(TP_BSIZE) - 1;
      if (TP_BSIZE != (1 << tp_bshift))
            quit("TP_BSIZE (%d) is not a power of 2", TP_BSIZE);
      maxino = sblock->fs_ipg * sblock->fs_ncg;
      mapsize = roundup(howmany(maxino, CHAR_BIT), TP_BSIZE);
      usedinomap = (char *)calloc((unsigned) mapsize, sizeof(char));
      dumpdirmap = (char *)calloc((unsigned) mapsize, sizeof(char));
      dumpinomap = (char *)calloc((unsigned) mapsize, sizeof(char));
      tapesize = 3 * (howmany(mapsize * sizeof(char), TP_BSIZE) + 1);

      nonodump = spcl.c_level < honorlevel;

      passno = 1;
      setproctitle("%s: pass 1: regular files", disk);
      msg("mapping (Pass I) [regular files]\n");
      anydirskipped = mapfiles(maxino, &tapesize);

      passno = 2;
      setproctitle("%s: pass 2: directories", disk);
      msg("mapping (Pass II) [directories]\n");
      while (anydirskipped) {
            anydirskipped = mapdirs(maxino, &tapesize);
      }

      if (pipeout || unlimited) {
            tapesize += 10;   /* 10 trailer blocks */
            msg("estimated %ld tape blocks.\n", tapesize);
      } else {
            double fetapes;

            if (blocksperfile)
                  fetapes = (double) tapesize / blocksperfile;
            else if (cartridge) {
                  /* Estimate number of tapes, assuming streaming stops at
                     the end of each block written, and not in mid-block.
                     Assume no erroneous blocks; this can be compensated
                     for with an artificially low tape size. */
                  fetapes =
                  (       (double) tapesize     /* blocks */
                        * TP_BSIZE  /* bytes/block */
                        * (1.0/density)   /* 0.1" / byte " */
                    +
                          (double) tapesize     /* blocks */
                        * (1.0/ntrec)     /* streaming-stops per block */
                        * 15.48           /* 0.1" / streaming-stop " */
                  ) * (1.0 / tsize );     /* tape / 0.1" " */
            } else {
                  /* Estimate number of tapes, for old fashioned 9-track
                     tape */
                  int tenthsperirg = (density == 625) ? 3 : 7;
                  fetapes =
                  (       (double) tapesize     /* blocks */
                        * TP_BSIZE  /* bytes / block */
                        * (1.0/density)   /* 0.1" / byte " */
                    +
                          (double) tapesize     /* blocks */
                        * (1.0/ntrec)     /* IRG's / block */
                        * tenthsperirg    /* 0.1" / IRG " */
                  ) * (1.0 / tsize );     /* tape / 0.1" " */
            }
            etapes = fetapes;       /* truncating assignment */
            etapes++;
            /* count the dumped inodes map on each additional tape */
            tapesize += (etapes - 1) *
                  (howmany(mapsize * sizeof(char), TP_BSIZE) + 1);
            tapesize += etapes + 10;      /* headers + 10 trailer blks */
            msg("estimated %ld tape blocks on %3.2f tape(s).\n",
                tapesize, fetapes);
      }

        /*
         * If the user only wants an estimate of the number of
         * tapes, exit now.
         */
        if (just_estimate)
                exit(0);

      /*
       * Allocate tape buffer.
       */
      if (!alloctape())
            quit(
      "can't allocate tape buffers - try a smaller blocking factor.\n");

      startnewtape(1);
      (void)time((time_t *)&(tstart_writing));
      dumpmap(usedinomap, TS_CLRI, maxino - 1);

      passno = 3;
      setproctitle("%s: pass 3: directories", disk);
      msg("dumping (Pass III) [directories]\n");
      dirty = 0;        /* XXX just to get gcc to shut up */
      for (map = dumpdirmap, ino = 1; ino < maxino; ino++) {
            if (((ino - 1) % CHAR_BIT) == 0)    /* map is offset by 1 */
                  dirty = *map++;
            else
                  dirty >>= 1;
            if ((dirty & 1) == 0)
                  continue;
            /*
             * Skip directory inodes deleted and maybe reallocated
             */
            dp = getino(ino, &mode);
            if (mode != IFDIR)
                  continue;
            (void)dumpino(dp, ino);
      }

      passno = 4;
      setproctitle("%s: pass 4: regular files", disk);
      msg("dumping (Pass IV) [regular files]\n");
      for (map = dumpinomap, ino = 1; ino < maxino; ino++) {
            if (((ino - 1) % CHAR_BIT) == 0)    /* map is offset by 1 */
                  dirty = *map++;
            else
                  dirty >>= 1;
            if ((dirty & 1) == 0)
                  continue;
            /*
             * Skip inodes deleted and reallocated as directories.
             */
            dp = getino(ino, &mode);
            if (mode == IFDIR)
                  continue;
            (void)dumpino(dp, ino);
      }

      (void)time((time_t *)&(tend_writing));
      spcl.c_type = TS_END;
      for (i = 0; i < ntrec; i++)
            writeheader(maxino - 1);
      if (pipeout)
            msg("DUMP: %jd tape blocks\n", (intmax_t)spcl.c_tapea);
      else
            msg("DUMP: %jd tape blocks on %d volume%s\n",
                (intmax_t)spcl.c_tapea, spcl.c_volume,
                (spcl.c_volume == 1) ? "" : "s");

      /* report dump performance, avoid division through zero */
      if (tend_writing - tstart_writing == 0)
            msg("finished in less than a second\n");
      else
            msg("finished in %jd seconds, throughput %jd KBytes/sec\n",
                (intmax_t)tend_writing - tstart_writing, 
                (intmax_t)(spcl.c_tapea / 
                (tend_writing - tstart_writing)));

      putdumptime();
      trewind();
      broadcast("DUMP IS DONE!\a\a\n");
      msg("DUMP IS DONE\n");
      Exit(X_FINOK);
      /* NOTREACHED */
}

static void
usage(void)
{
      fprintf(stderr,
            "usage: dump [-0123456789acLnSu] [-B records] [-b blocksize] [-C cachesize]\n"
            "            [-D dumpdates] [-d density] [-f file | -P pipecommand] [-h level]\n"
            "            [-s feet] [-T date] filesystem\n"
            "       dump -W | -w\n");
      exit(X_STARTUP);
}

/*
 * Check to see if a disk is currently mounted.
 */
static char *
getmntpt(char *name, int *mntflagsp)
{
      long mntsize, i;
      struct statfs *mntbuf;

      mntsize = getmntinfo(&mntbuf, MNT_NOWAIT);
      for (i = 0; i < mntsize; i++) {
            if (!strcmp(mntbuf[i].f_mntfromname, name)) {
                  *mntflagsp = mntbuf[i].f_flags;
                  return (mntbuf[i].f_mntonname);
            }
      }
      return (0);
}

/*
 * Pick up a numeric argument.  It must be nonnegative and in the given
 * range (except that a vmax of 0 means unlimited).
 */
static long
numarg(const char *meaning, long vmin, long vmax)
{
      char *p;
      long val;

      val = strtol(optarg, &p, 10);
      if (*p)
            errx(1, "illegal %s -- %s", meaning, optarg);
      if (val < vmin || (vmax && val > vmax))
            errx(1, "%s must be between %ld and %ld", meaning, vmin, vmax);
      return (val);
}

void
sig(int signo)
{
      switch(signo) {
      case SIGALRM:
      case SIGBUS:
      case SIGFPE:
      case SIGHUP:
      case SIGTERM:
      case SIGTRAP:
            if (pipeout)
                  quit("Signal on pipe: cannot recover\n");
            msg("Rewriting attempted as response to unknown signal.\n");
            (void)fflush(stderr);
            (void)fflush(stdout);
            close_rewind();
            exit(X_REWRITE);
            /* NOTREACHED */
      case SIGSEGV:
            msg("SIGSEGV: ABORTING!\n");
            (void)signal(SIGSEGV, SIG_DFL);
            (void)kill(0, SIGSEGV);
            /* NOTREACHED */
      }
}

char *
rawname(char *cp)
{
      struct stat sb;

      /*
       * Ensure that the device passed in is a raw device.
       */
      if (stat(cp, &sb) == 0 && (sb.st_mode & S_IFMT) == S_IFCHR)
            return (cp);

      /*
       * Since there's only one device type now, we can't construct any
       * better name, so we have to return NULL.
       */
      return (NULL);
}

/*
 * obsolete --
 *    Change set of key letters and ordered arguments into something
 *    getopt(3) will like.
 */
static void
obsolete(int *argcp, char **argvp[])
{
      int argc, flags;
      char *ap, **argv, *flagsp, **nargv, *p;

      /* Setup. */
      argv = *argvp;
      argc = *argcp;

      /*
       * Return if no arguments or first argument has leading
       * dash or slash.
       */
      ap = argv[1];
      if (argc == 1 || *ap == '-' || *ap == '/')
            return;

      /* Allocate space for new arguments. */
      if ((*argvp = nargv = malloc((argc + 1) * sizeof(char *))) == NULL ||
          (p = flagsp = malloc(strlen(ap) + 2)) == NULL)
            err(1, NULL);

      *nargv++ = *argv;
      argv += 2;

      for (flags = 0; *ap; ++ap) {
            switch (*ap) {
            case 'B':
            case 'b':
            case 'd':
            case 'f':
            case 'D':
            case 'C':
            case 'h':
            case 's':
            case 'T':
                  if (*argv == NULL) {
                        warnx("option requires an argument -- %c", *ap);
                        usage();
                  }
                  if ((nargv[0] = malloc(strlen(*argv) + 2 + 1)) == NULL)
                        err(1, NULL);
                  nargv[0][0] = '-';
                  nargv[0][1] = *ap;
                  (void)strcpy(&nargv[0][2], *argv);
                  ++argv;
                  ++nargv;
                  break;
            default:
                  if (!flags) {
                        *p++ = '-';
                        flags = 1;
                  }
                  *p++ = *ap;
                  break;
            }
      }

      /* Terminate flags. */
      if (flags) {
            *p = '\0';
            *nargv++ = flagsp;
      }

      /* Copy remaining arguments. */
      while ((*nargv++ = *argv++));

      /* Update argument count. */
      *argcp = nargv - *argvp - 1;
}

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